GapMind for Amino acid biosynthesis


L-lysine biosynthesis in Aquimarina longa SW024

Best path

asp-kinase, asd, dapA, dapB, DAPtransferase, dapF, lysA


Overview: Lysine biosynthesis in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathways L-lysine biosynthesis I via diaminopimelate (DAP) and succinylated intermediates (link), II with DAP and acetylated intermediates (link), III with DAP and no blocking group (link), V via 2-aminoadipate and LysW carrier protein (link), and VI with DAP aminotransferase (link). Most of these pathways involve tetrahydrodipicolinate and meso-diaminopimelate, with variations in how the amino group is introduced. Pathway V instead involves L-2-aminoadipate and LysW-attached intermediates. Lysine biosynthesis IV (link), via 2-aminoadipate and saccharopine, is only reported to occur in eukaryotes and is not described here.

25 steps (20 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
asp-kinase aspartate kinase N456_RS13555 N456_RS09495
asd aspartate semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase N456_RS02820
dapA 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase N456_RS18885 N456_RS05140
dapB 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase N456_RS19390
DAPtransferase L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase N456_RS09260
dapF diaminopimelate epimerase N456_RS18985
lysA diaminopimelate decarboxylase N456_RS16535
Alternative steps:
dapC N-succinyldiaminopimelate aminotransferase N456_RS13435 N456_RS11305
dapD tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase N456_RS16265
dapE succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase
dapH tetrahydrodipicolinate acetyltransferase N456_RS25215 N456_RS16265
dapL N-acetyl-diaminopimelate deacetylase N456_RS06765
dapX acetyl-diaminopimelate aminotransferase N456_RS22370 N456_RS17405
ddh meso-diaminopimelate D-dehydrogenase
hcs homocitrate synthase N456_RS05860
hicdh homo-isocitrate dehydrogenase N456_RS05845
lysJ [LysW]-2-aminoadipate semialdehyde transaminase N456_RS16190 N456_RS06530
lysK [LysW]-lysine hydrolase
lysN 2-aminoadipate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase N456_RS22370 N456_RS06530
lysT homoaconitase large subunit N456_RS05855
lysU homoaconitase small subunit N456_RS05850
lysW 2-aminoadipate/glutamate carrier protein
lysX 2-aminoadipate-LysW ligase
lysY [LysW]-2-aminoadipate 6-phosphate reductase N456_RS18110
lysZ [LysW]-2-aminoadipate 6-kinase N456_RS18090

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
? – known gap: despite the lack of a good candidate for this step, this organism (or a related organism) performs the pathway

This GapMind analysis is from Apr 09 2024. The underlying query database was built on Apr 09 2024.



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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory