GapMind for Amino acid biosynthesis

 

L-proline biosynthesis in Shewanella amazonensis SB2B

Best path

proB, proA, proC

Also see fitness data for the top candidates

Rules

Overview: Proline biosynthesis in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathways L-proline biosynthesis I from L-glutamate (link) and III via L-ornithine aminotransferase (link). GapMind also describes proline synthesis via ornithine cyclodeaminase (PMID:11489875). Pathway II from arginine (link) should perhaps be included, but is not; it is reported in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and the bacteria it was reported in also have pathway I. Pathway IV is not included because it is not reported in prokaryotes (link). Also, pathway III is described in MetaCyc as occuring only in plants, but it also is reported in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis (PMC5846162).

17 steps (11 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
proB glutamate 5-kinase Sama_2516 Sama_2515
proA gamma-glutamylphosphate reductase Sama_2515
proC pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Sama_2478
Alternative steps:
argA N-acylglutamate synthase Sama_0330 Sama_0487
argB N-acylglutamate kinase Sama_0257 Sama_1465
argC N-acylglutamylphosphate reductase Sama_0256
argD N-acetylornithine aminotransferase Sama_3011 Sama_1628
argE N-acetylornithine deacetylase Sama_0255 Sama_0725
argJ ornithine acetyltransferase
argX glutamate--LysW ligase
cyclodeaminase ornithine cyclodeaminase
lysJ [LysW]-2-aminoadipate semialdehyde transaminase / [LysW]-glutamate semialdehyde transaminase Sama_1628 Sama_3011
lysK [LysW]-lysine hydrolase / [LysW]-ornithine hydrolase
lysW 2-aminoadipate/glutamate carrier protein
lysY [LysW]-2-aminoadipate 6-phosphate reductase / [LysW]-glutamylphosphate reductase Sama_0256
lysZ [LysW]-2-aminoadipate 6-kinase / [LysW]-glutamate kinase
OAT L-ornithine 5-aminotransferase Sama_3011 Sama_1628

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
? – known gap: despite the lack of a good candidate for this step, this organism (or a related organism) performs the pathway

This GapMind analysis is from Aug 03 2021. The underlying query database was built on Aug 03 2021.

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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see the paper from 2019 on GapMind for amino acid biosynthesis, the paper from 2022 on GapMind for carbon sources, or view the source code, or see changes to Amino acid biosynthesis since the publication.

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory