GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources


Definition of D-lactate catabolism

As rules and steps, or see full text


Overview: D-lactate catabolism in GapMind is based on D-lactate dehydrogenases, which form pyruvate.


lctP: D-lactate:H+ symporter LctP or LidP

larD: D,L-lactic acid transporter

mctP: D,L-lactic acid transporter

PGA1_c12640: D-lactate ABC transporter, ATP-binding component

PGA1_c12650: D-lactate ABC transporter, permease component 1

PGA1_c12660: D-lactate ABC transporter, permease component 2

PGA1_c12670: D-lactate ABC transporter, substrate-binding component

D-LDH: D-lactate dehydrogenase

lctB: electron-transfer flavoprotein for D-lactate dehydrogenase (NAD+, ferredoxin), small subunit

lctC: electron-transfer flavoprotein for D-lactate dehydrogenase (NAD+, ferredoxin), large subunit

lctD: D-lactate dehydrogenase (NAD+, ferredoxin), lactate dehydrogenase component

glcD: D-lactate dehydrogenase, FAD-linked subunit 1 (GlcD)

glcE: D-lactate dehydrogenase, FAD-linked subunit 2 (GlcE)

glcF: D-lactate dehydrogenase, FeS subunit GlcF



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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer. Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see the paper from 2019 on GapMind for amino acid biosynthesis, or view the source code.

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory