GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources

 

Definition of acetate catabolism

As rules and steps, or see full text

Rules

Overview: After uptake, acetate can be converted to acetyl-CoA by acs or by ackA and pta, see MetaCyc's superpathway of acetate utilization and formation (link). Acetyl-CoA is a central metabolic intermediate, so further reactions are not represented in GapMind. Acetyl-CoA may be catabolized by the TCA cycle or, in strict anaerobes, by the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. If the TCA cycle is used, then intermediates need to be replenished by anaplaerotic reactions such as the glyoxylate cycle or the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway.

Steps

actP: cation/acetate symporter ActP

ady2: acetate permease Ady2

patA: Acetate transporter PatA

deh: acetate/haloacid transporter

satP: acetate/proton symporter satP

SLC5A8: actetate:Na+ symporter SLC5A8

ybhL: acetate uptake transporter YbhL

dctA: organic acid/proton symporter DctA

acs: acetyl-CoA synthetase, AMP-forming

ackA: acetate kinase

pta: phosphate acetyltransferase

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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer. Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see the paper from 2019 on GapMind for amino acid biosynthesis, the preprint on GapMind for carbon sources, or view the source code.

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory