GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources

 

L-glutamate catabolism in Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

Best path

braC, braD, braE, braF, braG, gdhA

Also see fitness data for the top candidates

Rules

Overview: Glutamate is a single transamination reaction from 2-oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate), which is an intermediate in the TCA cycle. Amino acid transaminases are often non-specific, so glutamate catabolism could be considered trivial. However, many amino acid transaminases are 2-oxoglutarate dependent, so they cannot contribute to glutamate catabolism. And even if the amino group is transfered elsewhere, the ammonium group still needs to be liberated somehow. GapMind represents glutamate degradation using MetaCyc pathways L-glutamate degradation I (glutamate dehydrogenase, link), pathway II via aspartate ammonia-lyase (link), and pathway VI via glutamate mutase (link). Several other MetaCyc pathways are not included in GapMind. Pathway IV (via gamma-aminobutanoate, link) is not thought to occur in prokaryotes. Pathways V (via hydroxyglutarate, link) and XI (reductive Stickland reaction, link) combine glutamate dehydrogenase with reductive pathways; these are omitted because glutamate dehydrogenase alone suffices for catabolism under respiratory conditions. Pathways VII (to butanoate, link) and VIII (to propanoate, link) are similar to pathway VI but also describe the fermentation of the pyruvate. Pathway IX (via 4-aminobutanoate, link) does not yield net consumption of glutamate: the catabolism of 4-aminobutanoate relies on a transamination reaction that converts 2-oxoglutarate to glutamate.

38 steps (25 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
braC ABC transporter for glutamate, histidine, arginine, and other amino acids, substrate-binding component BraC AZOBR_RS08260
braD ABC transporter for glutamate, histidine, arginine, and other amino acids, permease component 1 (BraD) AZOBR_RS08235 AZOBR_RS03565
braE ABC transporter for glutamate, histidine, arginine, and other amino acids, permease component 2 (BraE) AZOBR_RS08240 AZOBR_RS32410
braF ABC transporter for glutamate, histidine, arginine, and other amino acids, ATPase component 1 (BraF) AZOBR_RS08245 AZOBR_RS32405
braG ABC transporter for glutamate, histidine, arginine, and other amino acids, ATPase component 2 (BraG) AZOBR_RS08250 AZOBR_RS19790
gdhA glutamate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent AZOBR_RS00190 AZOBR_RS22625
Alternative steps:
aapJ ABC transporter for amino acids (Asp/Asn/Glu/Pro/Leu), substrate-binding component AapJ AZOBR_RS08655 AZOBR_RS00530
aapM ABC transporter for amino acids (Asp/Asn/Glu/Pro/Leu), permease component 2 (AapM) AZOBR_RS08665 AZOBR_RS18065
aapP ABC transporter for amino acids (Asp/Asn/Glu/Pro/Leu), ATPase component AapP AZOBR_RS08670 AZOBR_RS15690
aapQ ABC transporter for amino acids (Asp/Asn/Glu/Pro/Leu), permease component 1 (AapQ) AZOBR_RS08660 AZOBR_RS15675
acaP L-glutamate permease AcaP
aspA L-aspartate ammonia-lyase AZOBR_RS06120
bztA L-glutamate ABC transporter, substrate-binding component AZOBR_RS08655 AZOBR_RS00530
bztB L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component 1 (BztB) AZOBR_RS08660
bztC L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component 2 (BztC) AZOBR_RS08665
dmeA L-glutamate transporter DmeA
fumD (S)-2-methylmalate dehydratase (mesaconase) AZOBR_RS10315
glmE L-glutamate mutase, E component
glmS L-glutamate mutase, S component
glnP L-glutamate ABC transporter, fused permease and substrate-binding components GlnP
gltI L-glutamate ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (GltI/AatJ)
gltJ L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component 1 (gltJ/aatQ) AZOBR_RS23520 AZOBR_RS15680
gltK L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component 1 (gltK/aatM) AZOBR_RS27070 AZOBR_RS23520
gltL L-glutamate ABC transporter, ATPase component (GltL/GluA/BztD/GlnQ/AatP/PEB1C) AZOBR_RS08670 AZOBR_RS15690
gltP L-glutamate:cation symporter GltP/GltT AZOBR_RS21140 AZOBR_RS28110
gltS L-glutamate:Na+ symporter GltS
gltS_Syn L-glutamate:Na+ symporter GltS_Syn
gluB L-glutamate ABC transporter, substrate-binding component GluB
gluC L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component 1 (GluC) AZOBR_RS15680 AZOBR_RS18065
gluD L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component 2 (GluD) AZOBR_RS27070 AZOBR_RS23520
gtrA tripartite L-glutamate:Na+ symporter, small membrane component GtrA AZOBR_RS29765 AZOBR_RS20020
gtrB tripartite L-glutamate:Na+ symporter, large membrane component GtrB AZOBR_RS20015 AZOBR_RS29760
gtrC tripartite L-glutamate:Na+ symporter, substrate-binding component GtrC
mal methylaspartate ammonia-lyase
mcl (S)-citramalyl-CoA pyruvate-lyase AZOBR_RS17450 AZOBR_RS14115
peb1A L-glutamate ABC transporter, substrate-binding component Peb1A
peb1B L-glutamate ABC transporter, permease component Peb1B AZOBR_RS27070 AZOBR_RS29610
yveA L-glutamate:H+ symporter YveA

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
transporter – transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging.

This GapMind analysis is from Aug 02 2021. The underlying query database was built on Aug 02 2021.

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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer. Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see the paper from 2019 on GapMind for amino acid biosynthesis, or view the source code.

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory