GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources


lactose catabolism in Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL-12

Best path

lacP, lacZ, galdh, galactonolactonase, dgoD, dgoK, dgoA, glk

Also see fitness data for the top candidates


Overview: Lactose utilization in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathway lactose degradation II via 3'-ketolactose (link), pathway III via beta-galactosidase (link), or uptake by a PTS system followed by hydrolysis of lactose 6'-phosphate. (There is no pathway I.)

74 steps (35 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
lacP lactose permease LacP
lacZ lactase (homomeric) Dshi_1239 Dshi_1654
galdh D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase (forming 1,4- or 1,5-lactones) Dshi_1243 Dshi_3712
galactonolactonase galactonolactonase (either 1,4- or 1,5-lactone) Dshi_1240
dgoD D-galactonate dehydratase Dshi_1244 Dshi_0129
dgoK 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactonokinase Dshi_1242
dgoA 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase Dshi_1241 Dshi_1768
glk glucokinase Dshi_1655 Dshi_2001
Alternative steps:
aglE' glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (AglE) Dshi_1652
aglF' glucose ABC transporter, permease component 1 (AglF) Dshi_1651
aglG' glucose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (AglG) Dshi_1650 Dshi_0549
aglK' glucose ABC transporter, ATPase component (AglK) Dshi_1648 Dshi_1357
bglF glucose PTS, enzyme II (BCA components, BglF)
crr glucose PTS, enzyme IIA
eda 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate 6-phosphate aldolase Dshi_1768 Dshi_1241
edd phosphogluconate dehydratase Dshi_1769 Dshi_0129
gadh1 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit Dshi_3895
gadh2 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase cytochrome c subunit Dshi_4060 Dshi_3784
gadh3 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase subunit 3 Dshi_3896
galE UDP-glucose 4-epimerase Dshi_3868 Dshi_4115
galK galactokinase (-1-phosphate forming)
galT UDP-glucose:alpha-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
gatY D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, catalytic subunit (GatY/KbaY) Dshi_1266
gatZ D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, chaperone subunit (GatZ/KbaZ)
gdh quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase Dshi_2294 Dshi_1523
glcS glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (GlcS)
glcT glucose ABC transporter, permease component 1 (GlcT)
glcU glucose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (GlcU)
glcU' Glucose uptake protein GlcU
glcV glucose ABC transporter, ATPase component (GclV) Dshi_3141 Dshi_2017
gnl gluconolactonase
gtsA glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (GtsA)
gtsB glucose ABC transporter, permease component 1 (GtsB)
gtsC glucose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (GtsC) Dshi_1246 Dshi_1650
gtsD glucose ABC transporter, ATPase component (GtsD) Dshi_1416 Dshi_1250
kguD 2-keto-6-phosphogluconate reductase Dshi_2970 Dshi_2643
kguK 2-ketogluconokinase
kguT 2-ketogluconate transporter
klh periplasmic 3'-ketolactose hydrolase
lacA galactose-6-phosphate isomerase, lacA subunit
lacA' periplasmic lactose 3-dehydrogenase, LacA subunit
lacB galactose-6-phosphate isomerase, lacB subunit
lacB' periplasmic lactose 3-dehydrogenase, cytochrome c component (LacB) Dshi_0508
lacC D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase Dshi_1621
lacC' periplasmic lactose 3-dehydrogenase, LacC subunit
lacD D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (monomeric)
lacE lactose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component
lacF lactose ABC transporter, permease component 1 Dshi_2015 Dshi_0548
lacG lactose ABC transporter, permease component 2 Dshi_2016 Dshi_1246
lacIIA lactose PTS system, EIIA component
lacIIB lactose PTS system, EIIB component
lacIIC lactose PTS system, EIIC component
lacIICB lactose PTS system, fused EIIC and EIIB components
lacK lactose ABC transporter, ATPase component Dshi_1250 Dshi_1357
lacL heteromeric lactase, large subunit
lacM heteromeric lactase, small subunit
lacS lactose permease LacS
lacY lactose:proton symporter LacY
manX glucose PTS, enzyme EIIAB
manY glucose PTS, enzyme EIIC
manZ glucose PTS, enzyme EIID
MFS-glucose glucose transporter, MFS superfamily
mglA glucose ABC transporter, ATP-binding component (MglA) Dshi_1998 Dshi_2433
mglB glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component Dshi_2000
mglC glucose ABC transporter, permease component (MglC) Dshi_1999 Dshi_2431
PAST-A proton-associated sugar transporter A
pbgal phospho-beta-galactosidase Dshi_1654
pgmA alpha-phosphoglucomutase Dshi_2020 Dshi_1900
ptsG glucose PTS, enzyme IICB
ptsG-crr glucose PTS, enzyme II (CBA components, PtsG)
SemiSWEET Sugar transporter SemiSWEET
SSS-glucose Sodium/glucose cotransporter Dshi_3906 Dshi_3904
SWEET1 bidirectional sugar transporter SWEET1
tpi triose-phosphate isomerase Dshi_2078 Dshi_2155

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
transporter – transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging.

This GapMind analysis is from Sep 17 2021. The underlying query database was built on Sep 17 2021.



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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory