GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources


lactose catabolism in Pseudomonas fluorescens GW456-L13

Best path

lacP, lacZ, galdh, galactonolactonase, dgoD, dgoK, dgoA, glk

Also see fitness data for the top candidates


Overview: Lactose utilization in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathway lactose degradation II via 3'-ketolactose (link), pathway III via beta-galactosidase (link), or uptake by a PTS system followed by hydrolysis of lactose 6'-phosphate. (There is no pathway I.)

74 steps (33 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
lacP lactose permease LacP
lacZ lactase (homomeric)
galdh D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase (forming 1,4- or 1,5-lactones) PfGW456L13_2119 PfGW456L13_2522
galactonolactonase galactonolactonase (either 1,4- or 1,5-lactone) PfGW456L13_3314 PfGW456L13_2118
dgoD D-galactonate dehydratase PfGW456L13_2128 PfGW456L13_3320
dgoK 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactonokinase PfGW456L13_2126 PfGW456L13_2869
dgoA 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase PfGW456L13_1903 PfGW456L13_2127
glk glucokinase PfGW456L13_1890
Alternative steps:
aglE' glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (AglE)
aglF' glucose ABC transporter, permease component 1 (AglF)
aglG' glucose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (AglG) PfGW456L13_1896 PfGW456L13_2615
aglK' glucose ABC transporter, ATPase component (AglK) PfGW456L13_3039 PfGW456L13_1897
bglF glucose PTS, enzyme II (BCA components, BglF)
crr glucose PTS, enzyme IIA PfGW456L13_4832
eda 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate 6-phosphate aldolase PfGW456L13_1903 PfGW456L13_2127
edd phosphogluconate dehydratase PfGW456L13_1889 PfGW456L13_3725
gadh1 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit
gadh2 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase cytochrome c subunit PfGW456L13_3925
gadh3 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase subunit 3
galE UDP-glucose 4-epimerase PfGW456L13_1301 PfGW456L13_2186
galK galactokinase (-1-phosphate forming)
galT UDP-glucose:alpha-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
gatY D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, catalytic subunit (GatY/KbaY) PfGW456L13_1069
gatZ D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, chaperone subunit (GatZ/KbaZ)
gdh quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase PfGW456L13_4805 PfGW456L13_1173
glcS glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (GlcS)
glcT glucose ABC transporter, permease component 1 (GlcT)
glcU glucose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (GlcU)
glcU' Glucose uptake protein GlcU
glcV glucose ABC transporter, ATPase component (GclV) PfGW456L13_4204 PfGW456L13_1210
gnl gluconolactonase PfGW456L13_3314
gtsA glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component (GtsA) PfGW456L13_1894
gtsB glucose ABC transporter, permease component 1 (GtsB) PfGW456L13_1895
gtsC glucose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (GtsC) PfGW456L13_1896
gtsD glucose ABC transporter, ATPase component (GtsD) PfGW456L13_1897 PfGW456L13_3039
kguD 2-keto-6-phosphogluconate reductase PfGW456L13_4945 PfGW456L13_2948
kguK 2-ketogluconokinase PfGW456L13_2950
kguT 2-ketogluconate transporter PfGW456L13_2949 PfGW456L13_2939
klh periplasmic 3'-ketolactose hydrolase
lacA galactose-6-phosphate isomerase, lacA subunit
lacA' periplasmic lactose 3-dehydrogenase, LacA subunit
lacB galactose-6-phosphate isomerase, lacB subunit
lacB' periplasmic lactose 3-dehydrogenase, cytochrome c component (LacB) PfGW456L13_3720 PfGW456L13_2701
lacC D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase PfGW456L13_5074
lacC' periplasmic lactose 3-dehydrogenase, LacC subunit
lacD D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (monomeric)
lacE lactose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component
lacF lactose ABC transporter, permease component 1
lacG lactose ABC transporter, permease component 2
lacIIA lactose PTS system, EIIA component
lacIIB lactose PTS system, EIIB component
lacIIC lactose PTS system, EIIC component
lacIICB lactose PTS system, fused EIIC and EIIB components
lacK lactose ABC transporter, ATPase component PfGW456L13_3039 PfGW456L13_1897
lacL heteromeric lactase, large subunit
lacM heteromeric lactase, small subunit
lacS lactose permease LacS
lacY lactose:proton symporter LacY
manX glucose PTS, enzyme EIIAB
manY glucose PTS, enzyme EIIC
manZ glucose PTS, enzyme EIID
MFS-glucose glucose transporter, MFS superfamily
mglA glucose ABC transporter, ATP-binding component (MglA) PfGW456L13_2121 PfGW456L13_3911
mglB glucose ABC transporter, substrate-binding component
mglC glucose ABC transporter, permease component (MglC) PfGW456L13_2122 PfGW456L13_3910
PAST-A proton-associated sugar transporter A
pbgal phospho-beta-galactosidase
pgmA alpha-phosphoglucomutase PfGW456L13_3066 PfGW456L13_794
ptsG glucose PTS, enzyme IICB PfGW456L13_4833
ptsG-crr glucose PTS, enzyme II (CBA components, PtsG) PfGW456L13_4833
SemiSWEET Sugar transporter SemiSWEET
SSS-glucose Sodium/glucose cotransporter
SWEET1 bidirectional sugar transporter SWEET1
tpi triose-phosphate isomerase PfGW456L13_5091 PfGW456L13_1066

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
transporter – transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging.

This GapMind analysis is from Sep 17 2021. The underlying query database was built on Sep 17 2021.



Related tools

About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory