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1 QUANTUM HARDWARE OF LIVING MATTER Matti Pitk¨anen Ko¨ydenpunojankatu D 11, 10900, Hanko, Finland

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iii Preface This book belongs to a series of online books summarizing the recent state Topological Geometro- dynamics (TGD) and its applications. TGD can be regarded as a uniﬁed theory of fundamental interactions but is not the kind of uniﬁed theory as so called GUTs constructed by graduate stu- dents at seventies and eighties using detailed recipes for how to reduce everything to group theory. Nowadays this activity has been completely computerized and it probably takes only a few hours to print out the predictions of this kind of uniﬁed theory as an article in the desired format. TGD is something diﬀerent and I am not ashamed to confess that I have devoted the last 32 years of my life to this enterprise and am still unable to write The Rules. I got the basic idea of Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) during autumn 1978, perhaps it was October. What I realized was that the representability of physical space-times as 4-dimensional surfaces of some higher-dimensional space-time obtained by replacing the points of Minkowski space with some very small compact internal space could resolve the conceptual diﬃculties of general rela- tivity related to the deﬁnition of the notion of energy. This belief was too optimistic and only with the advent of what I call zero energy ontology the understanding of the notion of Poincare invariance has become satisfactory. It soon became clear that the approach leads to a generalization of the notion of space-time with particles being represented by space-time surfaces with ﬁnite size so that TGD could be also seen as a generalization of the string model. Much later it became clear that this generalization is consistent with conformal invariance only if space-time is 4-dimensional and the Minkowski space factor of imbedding space is 4-dimensional. It took some time to discover that also the geometrization of also gauge interactions and elementary particle quantum numbers could be possible in this framework: it took two years to ﬁnd the unique internal space providing this geometrization involving also the realization that family replication phenomenon for fermions has a natural topological explanation in TGD framework and that the symmetries of the standard model symmetries are much more profound than pragmatic TOE builders have believed them to be. If TGD is correct, main stream particle physics chose the wrong track leading to the recent deep crisis when people decided that quarks and leptons belong to same multiplet of the gauge group implying instability of proton. There have been also longstanding problems. • Gravitational energy is well-deﬁned in cosmological models but is not conserved. Hence the conservation of the inertial energy does not seem to be consistent with the Equivalence Princi- ple. Furthermore, the imbeddings of Robertson-Walker cosmologies turned out to be vacuum extremals with respect to the inertial energy. About 25 years was needed to realize that the sign of the inertial energy can be also negative and in cosmological scales the density of inertial energy vanishes: physically acceptable universes are creatable from vacuum. Eventually this led to the notion of zero energy ontology which deviates dramatically from the standard ontology being however consistent with the crossing symmetry of quantum ﬁeld theories. In this framework the quantum numbers are assigned with zero energy states located at the boundaries of so called causal diamonds deﬁned as intersections of future and past directed light-cones. The notion of energy-momentum becomes length scale dependent since one has a scale hierarchy for causal diamonds. This allows to understand the non-conservation of energy as apparent. Equivalence Principle generalizes and has a formulation in terms of coset representations of Super-Virasoro algebras providing also a justiﬁcation for p-adic thermodynamics. • From the beginning it was clear that the theory predicts the presence of long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge ﬁelds and that these ﬁelds necessarily accompany classical electro- magnetic ﬁelds. It took about 26 years to gain the maturity to admit the obvious: these ﬁelds are classical correlates for long range color and weak interactions assignable to dark matter. The only possible conclusion is that TGD physics is a fractal consisting of an entire hierarchy of fractal copies of standard model physics. Also the understanding of electro-weak massivation and screening of weak charges has been a long standing problem, and 32 years was needed to discover that what I call weak form of electric-magnetic duality gives a satisfactory solution of the problem and provides also surprisingly powerful insights to the mathematical structure of quantum TGD.

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iv I started the serious attempts to construct quantum TGD after my thesis around 1982. The original optimistic hope was that path integral formalism or canonical quantization might be enough to construct the quantum theory but the ﬁrst discovery made already during ﬁrst year of TGD was that these formalisms might be useless due to the extreme non-linearity and enormous vacuum degeneracy of the theory. This turned out to be the case. • It took some years to discover that the only working approach is based on the generalization of Einstein’s program. Quantum physics involves the geometrization of the inﬁnite-dimensional ”world of classical worlds” (WCW) identiﬁed as 3-dimensional surfaces. Still few years had to pass before I understood that general coordinate invariance leads to a more or less unique solution of the problem and implies that space-time surfaces are analogous to Bohr orbits. Still a coupled of years and I discovered that quantum states of the Universe can be identiﬁed as classical spinor ﬁelds in WCW. Only quantum jump remains the genuinely quantal aspect of quantum physics. • During these years TGD led to a rather profound generalization of the space-time concept. Quite general properties of the theory led to the notion of many-sheeted space-time with sheets representing physical subsystems of various sizes. At the beginning of 90s I became dimly aware of the importance of p-adic number ﬁelds and soon ended up with the idea that p-adic thermodynamics for a conformally invariant system allows to understand elementary particle massivation with amazingly few input assumptions. The attempts to understand p-adicity from basic principles led gradually to the vision about physics as a generalized number theory as an approach complementary to the physics as an inﬁnite-dimensional spinor geometry of WCW approach. One of its elements was a generalization of the number concept obtained by fusing real numbers and various p-adic numbers along common rationals. The number theoretical trinity involves besides p-adic number ﬁelds also quaternions and octonions and the notion of inﬁnite prime. • TGD inspired theory of consciousness entered the scheme after 1995 as I started to write a book about consciousness. Gradually it became diﬃcult to say where physics ends and consciousness theory begins since consciousness theory could be seen as a generalization of quantum measure- ment theory by identifying quantum jump as a moment of consciousness and by replacing the observer with the notion of self identiﬁed as a system which is conscious as long as it can avoid entanglement with environment. ”Everything is conscious and consciousness can be only lost” summarizes the basic philosophy neatly. The idea about p-adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality emerged also rather naturally and implies perhaps the most dramatic gener- alization of the space-time concept in which most points of p-adic space-time sheets are inﬁnite in real sense and the projection to the real imbedding space consists of discrete set of points. One of the most fascinating outcomes was the observation that the entropy based on p-adic norm can be negative. This observation led to the vision that life can be regarded as something in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds. Negentropic entanglement has interpretation as a correlate for various positively colored aspects of conscious experience and means also the possibility of strongly correlated states stable under state function reduction and diﬀerent from the conventional bound states and perhaps playing key role in the energy metabolism of living matter. • One of the latest threads in the evolution of ideas is only slightly more than six years old. Learning about the paper of Laurent Nottale about the possibility to identify planetary orbits as Bohr orbits with a gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant made once again possible to see the obvious. Dynamical quantized Planck constant is strongly suggested by quantum classical correspondence and the fact that space-time sheets identiﬁable as quantum coherence regions can have arbitrarily large sizes. During summer 2010 several new insights about the mathematical structure and interpretation of TGD emerged. One of these insights was the realization that the postulated hierarchy of Planck constants might follow from the basic structure of quantum TGD. The point is that due to the extreme non-linearity of the classical action principle the correspondence between canonical momentum densities and time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates is one-to-many and the natural description of the situation is in terms of local singular covering spaces of the imbedding space. One could speak about eﬀective value of Planck

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v constant coming as a multiple of its minimal value. The implications of the hierarchy of Planck constants are extremely far reaching so that the signiﬁcance of the reduction of this hierarchy to the basic mathematical structure distinguishing between TGD and competing theories cannot be under-estimated. From the point of view of particle physics the ultimate goal is of course a practical construction recipe for the S-matrix of the theory. I have myself regarded this dream as quite too ambitious taking into account how far reaching re-structuring and generalization of the basic mathematical structure of quantum physics is required. It has indeed turned out that the dream about explicit formula is unrealistic before one has understood what happens in quantum jump. Symmetries and general physical principles have turned out to be the proper guide line here. To give some impressions about what is required some highlights are in order. • With the emergence of zero energy ontology the notion of S-matrix was replaced with M-matrix which can be interpreted as a complex square root of density matrix representable as a diagonal and positive square root of density matrix and unitary S-matrix so that quantum theory in zero energy ontology can be said to deﬁne a square root of thermodynamics at least formally. • A decisive step was the strengthening of the General Coordinate Invariance to the requirement that the formulations of the theory in terms of light-like 3-surfaces identiﬁed as 3-surfaces at which the induced metric of space-time surfaces changes its signature and in terms of space-like 3-surfaces are equivalent. This means eﬀective 2-dimensionality in the sense that partonic 2- surfaces deﬁned as intersections of these two kinds of surfaces plus 4-D tangent space data at partonic 2-surfaces code for the physics. Quantum classical correspondence requires the coding of the quantum numbers characterizing quantum states assigned to the partonic 2-surfaces to the geometry of space-time surface. This is achieved by adding to the modiﬁed Dirac action a measurement interaction term assigned with light-like 3-surfaces. • The replacement of strings with light-like 3-surfaces equivalent to space-like 3-surfaces means enormous generalization of the super conformal symmetries of string models. A further general- ization of these symmetries to non-local Yangian symmetries generalizing the recently discovered Yangian symmetry of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories is highly suggestive. Here the replacement of point like particles with partonic 2-surfaces means the replacement of conformal symmetry of Minkowski space with inﬁnite-dimensional super-conformal algebras. Yangian sym- metry provides also a further reﬁnement to the notion of conserved quantum numbers allowing to deﬁne them for bound states using non-local energy conserved currents. • A further attractive idea is that quantum TGD reduces to almost topological quantum ﬁeld theory. This is possible if the Ka¨hler action for the preferred extremals deﬁning WCW Ka¨hler function reduces to a 3-D boundary term. This takes place if the conserved currents are so called Beltrami ﬁelds with the deﬁning property that the coordinates associated with ﬂow lines extend to single global coordinate variable. This ansatz together with the weak form of electric-magnetic duality reduces the Ka¨hler action to Chern-Simons term with the condition that the 3-surfaces are extremals of Chern-Simons action subject to the constraint force deﬁned by the weak form of electric magnetic duality. It is the latter constraint which prevents the trivialization of the theory to a topological quantum ﬁeld theory. Also the identiﬁcation of the Ka¨hler function of WCW as Dirac determinant ﬁnds support as well as the description of the scattering amplitudes in terms of braids with interpretation in terms of ﬁnite measurement resolution coded to the basic structure of the solutions of ﬁeld equations. • In standard QFT Feynman diagrams provide the description of scattering amplitudes. The beauty of Feynman diagrams is that they realize unitarity automatically via the so called Cutkosky rules. In contrast to Feynman’s original beliefs, Feynman diagrams and virtual parti- cles are taken only as a convenient mathematical tool in quantum ﬁeld theories. QFT approach is however plagued by UV and IR divergences and one must keep mind open for the possibility that a genuine progress might mean opening of the black box of the virtual particle. In TGD framework this generalization of Feynman diagrams indeed emerges unavoidably. Light- like 3-surfaces replace the lines of Feynman diagrams and vertices are replaced by 2-D partonic

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vi 2-surfaces. Zero energy ontology and the interpretation of parton orbits as light-like ”wormhole throats” suggests that virtual particle do not diﬀer from on mass shell particles only in that the four- and three- momenta of wormhole throats fail to be parallel. The two throats of the wormhole deﬁning virtual particle would contact carry on mass shell quantum numbers but for virtual particles the four-momenta need not be parallel and can also have opposite signs of energy. Modiﬁed Dirac equation suggests a number theoretical quantization of the masses of the virtual particles. The kinematic constraints on the virtual momenta are extremely restrictive and reduce the dimension of the sub-space of virtual momenta and if massless particles are not allowed (IR cutoﬀ provided by zero energy ontology naturally), the number of Feynman diagrams contributing to a particular kind of scattering amplitude is ﬁnite and manifestly UV and IR ﬁnite and satisﬁes unitarity constraint in terms of Cutkosky rules. What is remarkable that fermionic propagatos are massless propagators but for on mass shell four-momenta. This gives a connection with the twistor approach and inspires the generalization of the Yangian symmetry to inﬁnite-dimensional super-conformal algebras. What I have said above is strongly biased view about the recent situation in quantum TGD and I have left all about applications to the introductions of the books whose purpose is to provide a bird’s eye of view about TGD as it is now. This vision is single man’s view and doomed to contain unrealistic elements as I know from experience. My dream is that young critical readers could take this vision seriously enough to try to demonstrate that some of its basic premises are wrong or to develop an alternative based on these or better premises. I must be however honest and tell that 32 years of TGD is a really vast bundle of thoughts and quite a challenge for anyone who is not able to cheat himself by taking the attitude of a blind believer or a light-hearted debunker trusting on the power of easy rhetoric tricks. Matti Pitka¨nen Hanko, September 15, 2010 Acknowledgements Neither TGD nor these books would exist without the help and encouragement of many people. The friendship with Heikki and Raija Haila and their family have been kept me in contact with the everyday world and without this friendship I would not have survived through these lonely 32 years most of which I have remained unemployed as a scientiﬁc dissident. I am happy that my children have understood my diﬃcult position and like my friends have believed that what I am doing is something valuable although I have not received any oﬃcial recognition for it. During last decade Tapio Tammi has helped me quite concretely by providing the necessary com- puter facilities and being one of the few persons in Finland with whom to discuss about my work. I have had also stimulating discussions with Samuli Penttinen who has also helped to get through the economical situations in which there seemed to be no hope. The continual updating of ﬁfteen online books means quite a heavy bureaucracy at the level of bits and without a systemization one ends up with endless copying and pasting and internal consistency is soon lost. Pekka Rapinoja has oﬀered his help in this respect and I am especially grateful for him for my Python skills. Also Matti Vallinkoski has helped me in computer related problems. The collaboration with Lian Sidorov was extremely fruitful and she also helped me to survive economically through the hardest years. The participation to CASYS conferences in Liege has been an important window to the academic world and I am grateful for Daniel Dubois and Peter Marcer for making this participation possible. The discussions and collaboration with Eduardo de Luna and Istvan Dienes stimulated the hope that the communication of new vision might not be a mission impossible after all. Also blog discussions have been very useful. During these years I have received innumerable email contacts from people around the world. In particualr, I am grateful for Mark McWilliams and Ulla Matfolk for providing links to possibly interesting web sites and articles. These contacts have helped me to avoid the depressive feeling of being some kind of Don Quixote of Science and helped me to widen my views: I am grateful for all these people. In the situation in which the conventional scientiﬁc communication channels are strictly closed it is important to have some loop hole through which the information about the work done can at

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vii least in principle leak to the publicity through the iron wall of the academic censorship. Without any exaggeration I can say that without the world wide web I would not have survived as a scientist nor as individual. Homepage and blog are however not enough since only the formally published result is a result in recent day science. Publishing is however impossible without a direct support from power holders- even in archives like arXiv.org. Situation changed for ﬁve years ago as Andrew Adamatsky proposed the writing of a book about TGD when I had already got used to the thought that my work would not be published during my life time. The Prespacetime Journal and two other journals related to quantum biology and consciousness - all of them founded by Huping Hu - have provided this kind of loop holes. In particular, Dainis Zeps, Phil Gibbs, and Arkadiusz Jadczyk deserve my gratitude for their kind help in the preparation of an article series about TGD catalyzing a considerable progress in the understanding of quantum TGD. Also the viXra archive founded by Phil Gibbs and its predecessor Archive Freedom have been of great help: Victor Christianto deserves special thanks for doing the hard work needed to run Archive Freedom. Also the Neuroquantology Journal founded by Sultan Tarlaci deserves a special mention for its publication policy. And last but not least: there are people who experience as a fascinating intellectual challenge to spoil the practical working conditions of a person working with something which might be called uniﬁed theory: I am grateful for the people who have helped me to survive through the virus attacks, an activity which has taken roughly one month per year during the last half decade and given a strong hue of grey to my hair. For a person approaching his sixty year birthday it is somewhat easier to overcome the hard feelings due to the loss of academic human rights than for an inpatient youngster. Unfortunately the economic situation has become increasingly diﬃcult during the twenty years after the economic depression in Finland which in practice meant that Finland ceased to be a constitutional state in the strong sense of the word. It became possible to depose people like me from the society without fear about public reactions and the classiﬁcation as dropout became a convenient tool of ridicule to circumvent the ethical issues. During last few years when the right wing has held the political power this trend has been steadily strengthening. In this kind of situation the concrete help from individuals has been and will be of utmost importance. Against this background it becomes obvious that this kind of work is not possible without the support from outside and I apologize for not being able to mention all the people who have helped me during these years. Matti Pitka¨nen Hanko, September 15, 2010

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Basic Ideas of TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.2 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.3 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.4 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time concept . . 2 1.2 The threads in the development of quantum TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2.1 Quantum TGD as spinor geometry of World of Classical Worlds . . . . . . . . 3 1.2.2 TGD as a generalized number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.3 Hierarchy of Planck constants and dark matter hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2.4 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.4 The contents of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.4.1 PART I: BIO-SYSTEMS AS SUPER CONDUCTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.4.2 PART II: TOPOLOGICAL LIGHT RAYS AND WORMHOLE MAGNETIC FIELDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.4.3 PART III: DARK MATTER AND LIVING MATTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 I BIO-SYSTEMS AS SUPER CONDUCTORS 27 2 Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: Part I 29 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.1.1 General ideas about super-conductivity in many-sheeted space-time . . . . . . 29 2.1.2 TGD inspired model for high Tc superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.1.3 Empirical evidence for high Tc superconductivity in bio-systems . . . . . . . . 33 2.2 General TGD based view about super-conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.2.1 Basic phenomenology of super-conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.2.2 Universality of the parameters in TGD framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.2.3 Quantum criticality and super-conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2.4 Space-time description of the mechanisms of super-conductivity . . . . . . . . . 40 2.2.5 Super-conductivity at magnetic ﬂux tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.3 TGD based model for high Tc super conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.3.1 Some properties of high Tc super conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.3.2 TGD inspired vision about high Tc superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.4 Evidence for electronic superconductivity in bio-systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.4.1 DNA as a conductor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.4.2 DNA as a super-conductor? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.4.3 Conducting DNA and metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.4.4 Some empirical evidence for super conductivity in bio-systems . . . . . . . . . 57 2.4.5 Microtubular space-time sheets as super conductors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 2.4.6 Are living systems high Tc superconductors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2.5 Exotic atoms, wormhole super conductivity and wormhole magnetic ﬁelds . . . . . . . 59 2.5.1 Exotic atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.5.2 Mono-atomic elements as dark matter and high Tc super-conductors? . . . . . 61 ix

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x CONTENTS 2.5.3 Wormholes and super-conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3 Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: Part II 71 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.1.1 Strange behavior of cellular water and quantal ionic currents through cell mem- brane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.1.2 General mechanisms of bio-superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.1.3 Hierarchies of preferred p-adic length scales and values of Planck constant . . . 73 3.1.4 Fractal hierarchy of magnetic ﬂux sheets and the hierarchy of genomes . . . . . 73 3.1.5 Bose-Einstein condensates at magnetic ﬂux quanta in astrophysical length scales 74 3.1.6 Atmospheric phenomena and superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.2 Empirical support for ionic super-conductivity as a fundamental control mechanism . 75 3.2.1 Strange behavior of the intracellular water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.2.2 Are channels and pumps really there? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.2.3 Could the notion of the many-sheeted space-time solve the paradoxes? . . . . . 78 3.2.4 Water memory, homeopathy, and acupuncture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.3 Could cell correspond to almost vacuum extremal? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.3.1 Cell membrane as almost vacuum extremal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.3.2 Are photoreceptors nearly vacuum extremals? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.4 TGD based model for qualia and sensory receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 3.4.1 A general model of qualia and sensory receptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 3.4.2 Qualia and DNA as topological quantum computer hypothesis . . . . . . . . . 94 3.4.3 Overall view about qualia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 3.4.4 About detailed identiﬁcation of the qualia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 3.5 The roles of Josephson radiation, cyclotron radiation, and of magnetic body . . . . . . 98 3.5.1 The role of Josephson currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3.5.2 What is the role of the magnetic body? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 3.5.3 Magnetic homeostasis and magnetic circulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 3.5.4 Some remarks and questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 3.6 Models for ionic superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3.6.1 Model for ionic superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3.6.2 Super conductors of exotic bosonic counterparts of fermionic ions . . . . . . . . 108 3.6.3 More quantitative picture about Bose-Einstein condensates . . . . . . . . . . . 109 3.7 Atmospheric phenomena and super-conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 3.7.1 Tornadoes as a macroscopic quantum phenomenon involving super-conductivity? 112 3.7.2 Auroras as an astrophysical quantum phenomenon? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 3.7.3 Lightnings, sprites, elves, and the hypothesis of magnetic sensory canvas . . . . 121 3.8 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 3.8.1 Hierarchy of Planck constants and the generalization of the notion of imbedding space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 3.8.2 Updated view about the hierarchy of Planck constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 3.8.3 Cyclotron frequencies and Larmor frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 II TOPOLOGICAL LIGHT RAYS AND WORMHOLE MAGNETIC FIELDS 141 4 Quantum Antenna Hypothesis 143 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 4.1.1 Massless extremals and quantum antenna hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 4.1.2 Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 4.1.3 Quantum antenna hypothesis and brain consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 4.1.4 Relationship of TGD approach with microtubular approach . . . . . . . . . . . 146 4.1.5 MEs and information molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 4.1.6 MEs and quantum holography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 4.1.7 MEs and the notion of conscious hologram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 4.1.8 Negative energy MEs and bio-control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

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