GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources


L-phenylalanine catabolism in Oceanisphaera arctica V1-41

Best path

livF, livG, livH, livM, livJ, PAH, PCBD, QDPR, HPD, hmgA, maiA, fahA, atoA, atoD, atoB


Overview: Phenylalanine utilization in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathway L-phenylalanine degradation I (aerobic, via tyrosine, link), pathway II (anaerobic, via phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase, link), degradation via phenylpyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PMC3346364), or degradation via phenylacetaldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PMID:24214948). (MetaCyc describes additional pathways, but they do not result in carbon incorporation or are not reported in prokaryotes, so they are not included in GapMind.)

76 steps (45 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
livF L-phenylalanine ABC transporter, ATPase component 1 (LivF) UN63_RS11740 UN63_RS06410
livG L-phenylalanine ABC transporter, ATPase component 2 (LivG) UN63_RS11735 UN63_RS06410
livH L-phenylalanine ABC transporter, permease component 1 (LivH) UN63_RS11725
livM L-phenylalanine ABC transporter, permease component 2 (LivM) UN63_RS11730
livJ L-phenylalanine ABC transporter, substrate-binding component LivJ/LivK UN63_RS11720
PAH phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase UN63_RS14985
PCBD pterin-4-alpha-carbinoalamine dehydratase UN63_RS14980
QDPR 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase UN63_RS03370
HPD 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase UN63_RS09945
hmgA homogentisate dioxygenase UN63_RS07595
maiA maleylacetoacetate isomerase UN63_RS07605 UN63_RS03695
fahA fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase UN63_RS07600
atoA acetoacetyl-CoA transferase, A subunit UN63_RS00285
atoD acetoacetyl-CoA transferase, B subunit UN63_RS00280
atoB acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase UN63_RS04220 UN63_RS09000
Alternative steps:
aacS acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase UN63_RS11160 UN63_RS07610
ARO10 phenylpyruvate decarboxylase
ARO8 L-phenylalanine transaminase UN63_RS02645 UN63_RS11415
aroP L-phenylalanine:H+ symporter AroP
badH 2-hydroxy-cyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA dehydrogenase UN63_RS12905 UN63_RS16365
badI 2-ketocyclohexanecarboxyl-CoA hydrolase
badK cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA hydratase UN63_RS10750 UN63_RS10745
bamB class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamB subunit
bamC class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamC subunit
bamD class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamD subunit UN63_RS11085
bamE class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamE subunit
bamF class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamF subunit
bamG class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamG subunit
bamH class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamH subunit UN63_RS11245
bamI class II benzoyl-CoA reductase, BamI subunit UN63_RS11240
bcrA ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase, alpha subunit
bcrB ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase, beta subunit
bcrC ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase, gamma subunit
bcrD ATP-dependent benzoyl-CoA reductase, delta subunit
boxA benzoyl-CoA epoxidase, subunit A
boxB benzoyl-CoA epoxidase, subunit B
boxC 2,3-epoxybenzoyl-CoA dihydrolase
boxD 3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde dehydrogenase UN63_RS10780
Ch1CoA cyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA dehydrogenase UN63_RS13340 UN63_RS08990
dch cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA hydratase UN63_RS10745 UN63_RS10750
ech (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA hydro-lyase UN63_RS10750 UN63_RS14495
fadB (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase UN63_RS14495 UN63_RS01710
gcdH glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase UN63_RS13340 UN63_RS08990
had 6-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA dehydrogenase
iorA phenylpyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, IorA subunit
iorAB phenylpyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, fused IorA/IorB
iorB phenylpyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, IorB subunit
oah 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA hydratase
paaA phenylacetyl-CoA 1,2-epoxidase, subunit A UN63_RS10775
paaB phenylacetyl-CoA 1,2-epoxidase, subunit B UN63_RS10770
paaC phenylacetyl-CoA 1,2-epoxidase, subunit C UN63_RS10765
paaE phenylacetyl-CoA 1,2-epoxidase, subunit E UN63_RS10755 UN63_RS04425
paaF 2,3-dehydroadipyl-CoA hydratase UN63_RS10750 UN63_RS10745
paaG 1,2-epoxyphenylacetyl-CoA isomerase / 2-(oxepinyl)acetyl-CoA isomerase / didehydroadipyl-CoA isomerase UN63_RS10745 UN63_RS10750
paaH 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA dehydrogenase UN63_RS14495 UN63_RS01710
paaJ1 3-oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA thiolase UN63_RS10730 UN63_RS00230
paaJ2 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase UN63_RS10730 UN63_RS00230
paaK phenylacetate-CoA ligase UN63_RS10725
paaZ1 oxepin-CoA hydrolase UN63_RS10780 UN63_RS10745
paaZ2 3-oxo-5,6-didehydrosuberyl-CoA semialdehyde dehydrogenase UN63_RS10780
pad-dh phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase UN63_RS14965 UN63_RS09060
padB phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase, PadB subunit
padC phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase, PadC subunit
padD phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase, PadD subunit
padE phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase, gamma subunit
padF phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase, delta subunit
padG phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase, alpha subunit
padH phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase, epsilon subunit
padI phenylglyoxylate dehydrogenase, beta subunit
pfor phenylacetaldeyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
pimB 3-oxopimeloyl-CoA:CoA acetyltransferase UN63_RS14490 UN63_RS10730
pimC pimeloyl-CoA dehydrogenase, small subunit
pimD pimeloyl-CoA dehydrogenase, large subunit
pimF 6-carboxyhex-2-enoyl-CoA hydratase UN63_RS01710 UN63_RS14495
PPDCalpha phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, alpha subunit UN63_RS03100 UN63_RS15430
PPDCbeta phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, beta subunit UN63_RS03095 UN63_RS15425

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
transporter – transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging.

This GapMind analysis is from Sep 24 2021. The underlying query database was built on Sep 17 2021.



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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory