GapMind for catabolism of small carbon sources


citrate catabolism in Domibacillus robiginosus WS 4628

Best path

citM, acn, icd


Overview: Citrate is utilized via ATP-citrate lyase (link) or by oxidation to 2-oxoglutarate (part of the the TCA cycle, link). MetaCyc does not explicitly represent the TCA cycle as a means for catabolizing citrate, but it is expected to function under respiratory conditions. Fitness data confirms that in diverse bacteria, ATP-citrate lyase is not necessary for aerobic utilization of citrate.

20 steps (14 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
citM citrate:cation:H+ symporter CitM VP97_RS21775 VP97_RS16440
acn aconitase VP97_RS15160 VP97_RS18930
icd isocitrate dehydrogenase VP97_RS07605 VP97_RS14235
Alternative steps:
cimH citrate:H+ symporter CimH VP97_RS13240
cit1 citrate:H+ symporter Cit1 VP97_RS03395
citA citrate:H+ symporter CitA
citD citrate lyase, acyl carrier component CitD
citE citrate lyase, citryl-ACP lyase component CitE
citF citrate lyase, citrate-ACP transferase component CitF
citS citrate:Na+ symporter CitS VP97_RS13240
citT citrate:succinate antiporter CitT VP97_RS03395
citW citrate exchange transporter CitW (with lactate or acetate) VP97_RS13240
fecB ferric citrate ABC transporter, substrate-binding component FecB VP97_RS19685
fecC ferric citrate ABC transporter, permease component 1 (FecC) VP97_RS19680 VP97_RS16910
fecD ferric citrate ABC transporter, permease component 2 (FecD) VP97_RS19675 VP97_RS16915
fecE ferric citrate ABC transporter, ATPase component FecE VP97_RS18495 VP97_RS21485
SLC13A5 citrate:Na+ symporter
tctA citrate/Na+ symporter, large transmembrane component TctA VP97_RS19515 VP97_RS16330
tctB citrate/Na+ symporter, small transmembrane component TctB
tctC citrate/Na+ symporter, substrate-binding component TctC VP97_RS16340 VP97_RS19505

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
transporter – transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging.

This GapMind analysis is from Sep 24 2021. The underlying query database was built on Sep 17 2021.



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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory