GapMind for Amino acid biosynthesis

 

L-leucine biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

Best path

ilvH, ilvI, ilvC, ilvD, leuA, leuC, leuD, leuB, ilvE

Rules

Overview: Leucine biosynthesis in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathway L-leucine biosynthesis (link). This begins with the initial steps of valine biosynthesis (see link), up to 3-methyloxobutanoate.

9 steps (9 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
ilvH acetolactate/acetohydroxybutanoate synthase regulatory subunit CA_RS16305
ilvI acetolactate/acetohydroxybutanoate synthase catalytic subunit CA_RS16275 CA_RS18785
ilvC 2-hydroxy-3-ketol-acid reductoisomerase CA_RS00505
ilvD dihydroxy-acid dehydratase CA_RS16280 CA_RS18545
leuA 2-isopropylmalate synthase CA_RS01515 CA_RS16300
leuC 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase / citramalate isomerase, large subunit CA_RS16295 CA_RS05175
leuD 3-isopropylmalate dehydaratase / citramalate isomerase, small subunit CA_RS16290 CA_RS05175
leuB 3-methylmalate dehydrogenase / 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase CA_RS16285 CA_RS05180
ilvE leucine transaminase CA_RS07740 CA_RS11440

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
? – known gap: despite the lack of a good candidate for this step, this organism (or a related organism) performs the pathway

This GapMind analysis is from Apr 09 2024. The underlying query database was built on Apr 09 2024.

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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory