GapMind for Amino acid biosynthesis


L-lysine biosynthesis in Methanococcus maripaludis C5

Best path

asp-kinase, asd, dapA, dapB, DAPtransferase, dapF, lysA


Overview: Lysine biosynthesis in GapMind is based on MetaCyc pathways L-lysine biosynthesis I via diaminopimelate (DAP) and succinylated intermediates (link), II with DAP and acetylated intermediates (link), III with DAP and no blocking group (link), V via 2-aminoadipate and LysW carrier protein (link), and VI with DAP aminotransferase (link). Most of these pathways involve tetrahydrodipicolinate and meso-diaminopimelate, with variations in how the amino group is introduced. Pathway V instead involves L-2-aminoadipate and LysW-attached intermediates. Lysine biosynthesis IV (link), via 2-aminoadipate and saccharopine, is only reported to occur in eukaryotes and is not described here.

25 steps (18 with candidates)

Or see definitions of steps

Step Description Best candidate 2nd candidate
asp-kinase aspartate kinase MMARC5_RS02925
asd aspartate semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase MMARC5_RS00960
dapA 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase MMARC5_RS05215
dapB 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase MMARC5_RS03685
DAPtransferase L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase MMARC5_RS00255 MMARC5_RS02615
dapF diaminopimelate epimerase MMARC5_RS03655
lysA diaminopimelate decarboxylase MMARC5_RS01990 MMARC5_RS02925
Alternative steps:
dapC N-succinyldiaminopimelate aminotransferase MMARC5_RS06310 MMARC5_RS02450
dapD tetrahydrodipicolinate succinylase
dapE succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase
dapH tetrahydrodipicolinate acetyltransferase MMARC5_RS08320
dapL N-acetyl-diaminopimelate deacetylase
dapX acetyl-diaminopimelate aminotransferase MMARC5_RS02615
ddh meso-diaminopimelate D-dehydrogenase
hcs homocitrate synthase MMARC5_RS07725 MMARC5_RS02690
hicdh homo-isocitrate dehydrogenase MMARC5_RS03475 MMARC5_RS05395
lysJ [LysW]-2-aminoadipate semialdehyde transaminase MMARC5_RS02450 MMARC5_RS07450
lysK [LysW]-lysine hydrolase
lysN 2-aminoadipate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase MMARC5_RS08060 MMARC5_RS02450
lysT homoaconitase large subunit MMARC5_RS00510 MMARC5_RS02215
lysU homoaconitase small subunit MMARC5_RS06370 MMARC5_RS07820
lysW 2-aminoadipate/glutamate carrier protein
lysX 2-aminoadipate-LysW ligase
lysY [LysW]-2-aminoadipate 6-phosphate reductase MMARC5_RS07930
lysZ [LysW]-2-aminoadipate 6-kinase MMARC5_RS08235

Confidence: high confidence medium confidence low confidence
? – known gap: despite the lack of a good candidate for this step, this organism (or a related organism) performs the pathway

This GapMind analysis is from Apr 09 2024. The underlying query database was built on Apr 09 2024.



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About GapMind

Each pathway is defined by a set of rules based on individual steps or genes. Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam). Ublast hits may be split across two different proteins.

A candidate for a step is "high confidence" if either:

where "other" refers to the best ublast hit to a sequence that is not annotated as performing this step (and is not "ignored").

Otherwise, a candidate is "medium confidence" if either:

Other blast hits with at least 50% coverage are "low confidence."

Steps with no high- or medium-confidence candidates may be considered "gaps." For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. For diverse bacteria and archaea that can utilize a carbon source, there is a complete high-confidence catabolic pathway (including a transporter) just 38% of the time, and there is a complete medium-confidence pathway 63% of the time. Gaps may be due to:

GapMind relies on the predicted proteins in the genome and does not search the six-frame translation. In most cases, you can search the six-frame translation by clicking on links to Curated BLAST for each step definition (in the per-step page).

For more information, see:

If you notice any errors or omissions in the step descriptions, or any questionable results, please let us know

by Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory